REFERENCES - Chapter 7 - The Palestinians In The West Bank

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These are the references related to the CHAPTER 7: The Palestinians In The West Bank section in the book.

As Mentioned In The Book

What Is The West Bank?
Large Detailed Map of West Bank.
The West Bank (Arabic: الضفة الغربية, aḍ-Ḍiffah al-Ġarbiyyah; Hebrew: הַגָּדָה הַמַּעֲרָבִית, HaGadáh HaMaʽarávit) is a landlocked territory near the coast of the Mediterranean in Western Asia that forms the main bulk of the Palestinian territories. It is bordered by Jordan and the Dead Sea to the east and by Israel (see Green Line) to the south, west, and north. Under an Israeli military occupation since 1967, its area is split into 165 Palestinian “islands” that are under total or partial civil administration by the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), and a contiguous area containing 230 Israeli settlements into which Israeli law is “pipelined.” The West Bank includes East Jerusalem. Israel administers the West Bank excluding East Jerusalem as the Judea and Samaria Area אֵזוֹר יְהוּדָה וְשׁוֹמְרוֹן, Ezor Yehūda VeŠōmrōn Ezor Yehuda VeŠomron) district, through the Israeli Civil Administration.
The Six-Day War was a brief but bloody conflict fought in June 1967 between Israel and the Arab states of Egypt, Syria and Jordan. Following years of diplomatic friction and skirmishes between Israel and its neighbors, Israel Defense Forces launched preemptive air strikes that crippled the air forces of Egypt and its allies. Israel then staged a successful ground offensive and seized the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.

What Is Fatah Role In The West Bank?
The Oslo Accords were a landmark moment in the pursuit of peace in the Middle East. Actually a set of two separate agreements signed by the government of Israel and the leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)—the militant organization established in 1964 to create a Palestinian state in the region—the Oslo Accords were ratified in Washington, D.C., in 1993 (Oslo I) and in Taba, Egypt, in 1995 (Oslo II). While provisions drafted during the talks remain in effect today, the relationship between the two sides continues to be marred by conflict.

A Short History
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; Arabic: منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية, Munaẓẓamat at-Taḥrīr al-Filasṭīniyyah) is a Palestinian nationalist political and militant organization founded in 1964 with the initial purpose of establishing Arab unity and statehood over the territory of former Mandatory Palestine, in opposition to the State of Israel. In 1993, alongside the Oslo I Accord, the PLO’s aspiration for Arab statehood was revised to be specifically for the Palestinian territories under an Israeli occupation since the 1967 Arab–Israeli War.
It is the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the second-largest party in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC). Mahmoud Abbas, the President of the Palestinian Authority, is the chairman of Fatah.

Geographical Trap
Since 1994, roughly 90% of the Jordan Valley has been under full Israeli control. Under the Oslo Accords, signed between Israel and the Palestinians, the West Bank was divided into three separate territories: areas A, B and C.
The Israeli West Bank barrier, comprising the West Bank Wall and the West Bank fence, is a separation barrier built by Israel along the Green Line and inside parts of the West Bank. It is a contentious element of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict: Israel describes the wall as a necessary security barrier against Palestinian terrorism, whereas Palestinians describe it as an element of racial segregation and a representation of Israeli apartheid.

Economic Squeeze
Under interim peace deals, Israel collects customs duties and other taxes on behalf of the Western-backed Palestinian Authority, and transfers the funds to the Palestinians each month. These transfers cover roughly two-thirds of the Palestinian government’s budget.
Since 1993, the U.S. government has provided more than $6.3 billion in bilateral assistance to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza. This aid ceased as of Jan. 2019, but the Biden administration has announced its intent to resume funding.
Because of the large proportion of taxes in the PA’s budget collected by Israel, the PA is vulnerable to unilateral suspensions by Israel of transfers of clearance revenue. As early as 1997, Israel began to unilaterally settle bills unpaid by Palestinians, not the PA itself, including fines and interest. Political reasons for suspension varied from Palestinian violence to the election of Hamas into PA, reconciliation between Fatah and Hamas and the demand for international recognition. Israel has suspended hundreds of millions of dollars for accumulated periods of some 4 years. While Israel Electric Corporation unilaterally issues excessive late payment penalties and interest charges, Israel did not pay interest on money it did not transfer to the PA.
The Palestinian Authority’s finances are at a “breaking point,” a United Nations official warned on October 20th. But that didn’t stop Israel’s state-owned electric company from reportedly threatening a week later to cut power to the occupied West Bank if the PA didn’t pay $120m in overdue bills. The threat to plunge Palestine into darkness is a recurring one, but it has renewed focus on the increasingly dire state of the PA’s books, and the role Israel continues to play in further hobbling the occupied West Bank’s already crippled economy when it can least afford it.

Political Bind
The EU is the most important donor for the Palestinian people and a reliable and predictable partner. It is present at all levels of Palestinian life, from supporting the establishment of the future Palestinian State and building new infrastructure across Palestine to supporting Palestinian civil society.
1 February 2019 - The US has confirmed it stopped all aid to Palestinians in the occupied West Bank and Gaza, in a step linked to new anti-terrorism legislation.
7 Apr 2021 - The Biden administration has announced plans to resume funding for the United Nations agency that supports Palestinian refugees, which has faced a dire financial situation since former US President Donald Trump cut US assistance in 2018.

Fatah Dimming Role
December 11, 2021 - Palestinians held municipal elections in the Israeli-occupied West Bank on Saturday amid increasing frustrations with President Mahmoud Abbas, 86, after he canceled promised parliamentary and presidential elections earlier this year. Abbas’ moderate Fatah party performed poorly in the first round of elections, according to an announcement by the electoral commission. Less than 30% of the 1,503 seats went to parties, including Fatah, and more than 70% of the seats were garnered by independent candidates.

Who Are The West Bank Palestinians?
Birth rate: Israel (17.52 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)) vs. West Bank (24.8 births/1,000 population (2021 est.))
The West Bank experienced limited economic revival in 2009, but its residents continue to face financial hardships and substandard living conditions. Israeli-imposed restrictions on movement have disrupted commerce and labor flow. Access to land and resources, along with import and export restrictions, remains a problem. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has noted that settlement activity isolates the West Bank from East Jerusalem and impedes economic growth in the area. Unemployment officially stands at 19 percent, but this does not take into account the number of underemployed workers, such as those who rely on unpaid family labor or seasonal agriculture.
According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), unemployment in Gaza stood at 44.1% in the second quarter of 2022 (April-June), a 2.5% drop compared to the previous quarter (when unemployment was 46.6%). The unemployment rate in the West Bank in this quarter was 13.8% ... Among Gaza’s younger population (ages 15-29), the unemployment rate stood at 59.1%, compared to 62.5% in the previous quarter and 61.9% in the same quarter last year.
APRIL 30, 2023 - The unemployment rate among Palestinians participating in the labor force decreased in 2022 to about 24% compared to 26% a year earlier.
Literacy In 2015 the literacy rate for people aged 15 and above in the West Bank and Gaza was 96.5%.
This is a list of universities and colleges in the State of Palestine, contemplating both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. The West Bank and Gaza together have 14 universities, an open university for distance learning, 18 university colleges and 20 community colleges.

Why Should The Palestinians Transfer The West Bank?
The Israeli–Palestinian peace process refers to the intermittent discussions held by various parties and proposals put forward in an attempt to resolve the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Since the 1970s, there has been a parallel effort made to find terms upon which peace can be agreed to in both the Arab–Israeli conflict and in the Palestinian–Israeli conflict. Some countries have signed peace treaties, such as the Egypt–Israel (1979) and Jordan–Israel (1994) treaties, whereas some have not yet found a mutual basis to do so ... Since the 2003 road map for peace, the current outline for a Palestinian–Israeli peace agreement has been a two-state solution; however, a number of Israeli and US interpretations of this propose a series of non-contiguous Palestinian enclaves.

How Will The West Bank Be Transferred?

Recognition Of The Pre-1967 Border
The Green Line. It was the line of demarcation that more than 60 years ago formed the de facto border between the new state of Israel and its Arab neighbors — Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Egypt, at the time all enemies of the Jewish state. The line was in place for nearly two decades, until June 1967, when Israel and its Arab neighbors fought yet another war — for a brief but pivotal six days — in which Israel captured significant portions of Arab-held territory. Those pre-1967 boundaries are a tripwire in the rhetoric and realpolitik over how to achieve peace between Israel, Palestinians and the wider Arab world.

Native Residency
Israel has no written constitution. Various attempts to draft the formal document since 1948 have fallen short of the mark, and instead Israel has evolved a system of basic laws and rights, which enjoy semi-constitutional status.
Manifest destiny was a cultural belief in the 19th-century United States that American settlers were destined to expand across North America. There were three basic tenets to the concept: The special virtues of the American people and their institutions, the mission of the United States to redeem and remake the West in the image of the agrarian East, an irresistible destiny to accomplish this essential duty.

Staged Transfer
The West Bank was divided into Areas A, B, and C, with the Palestinian Authority taking over full administration in Area A, including all of the major urban centers, and partial control in Area B, including most of the Palestinian villages, while Israel retained full control in Area C, including most of the Jordan Valley, the areas in close proximity to the Green Line boundary, and around Jerusalem.

Right Of Return
The Palestinian right of return is the political position or principle that Palestinian refugees, both first-generation refugees (c. 30,000 to 50,000 people still alive as of 2012) and their descendants (c. 5 million people as of 2012), have a right to return, and a right to the property they themselves or their forebears left behind or were forced to leave in what is now Israel and the Palestinian territories (both formerly part of the British Mandate of Palestine), as part of the 1948 Palestinian exodus, a result of the 1948 Palestine war, and due to the 1967 Six-Day War.
Arabs represent one-fifth of Israel’s population. Systemic discrimination, outbreaks of communal violence, and the broader Israeli-Palestinian conflict continue to strain their ties with Israel’s Jewish majority.
UNRWA is mandated by the UN General Assembly to serve ‘Palestine refugees.’ This term was defined in 1952 as any person whose “normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict.” ... In addition to Palestine refugees, the UN General Assembly has also mandated UNRWA to offer services to certain other persons who require humanitarian assistance, on an emergency basis as and when required, in UNRWA fields of operations.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a global organization dedicated to saving lives, protecting rights and building a better future for people forced to flee their homes because of conflict and persecution. We lead international action to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people.

What Land Is Exempt From The Transfer?

Jewish Land Of 1948 Exception
Jordan expelled 17,000 Jews from the West Bank during the 1948 war, and when Israel conquered the territory in 1967, it had no Jewish population. The first West Bank settlement was Kfar Etzion, a Jewish community that existed prior to 1948 that Israel reestablished in 1967. After Israel annexed East Jerusalem in 1967, it passed the 1970 Legal and Administrative Matters Law, allowing Jewish families to reclaim lost property they allegedly owned in East Jerusalem. Meanwhile, the 1950 Absentee Property Law, and its amendment in 1973, prevents Palestinians from getting back their property in West Jerusalem and elsewhere.

Palestinian Historic Sites Exception
The Cave of the Patriarchs or Tomb of the Patriarchs, known to Jews by its Biblical name Cave of Machpelah ... is a series of caves situated 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of Jerusalem in the heart of the Old City of Hebron in the West Bank ... During Byzantine rule of the region, a basilica was built on the site; the structure was converted into the Ibrahimi Mosque following the Muslim conquest of the Levant ... During the Six-Day War of 1967, the entire Jordanian-occupied West Bank was seized and occupied by the State of Israel, after which the mosque was divided, with half of it repurposed as a synagogue.
The Tomb of Suleyman Shah is, according to Ottoman tradition, the grave (tomb, mausoleum) housing the relics of Suleyman Shah (c. 1178–1236), grandfather of Osman I (d. 1323/4), the founder of the Ottoman Empire. This legendary tomb has since 1236 had three locations, all in present-day Syria. Under the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), breaking up the Ottoman Empire into Turkey, Syria, and other states, the tomb site remains the property of Turkey.

How To Resolve The Jerusalem Issue?
The 3 major monotheistic world religions – Christianity, Islam, and Judaism – all consider Jerusalem to be a sacred place. Inside the emotionally charged city, each of these religions has sites they consider sacred and central to their faith.
The Battle for Jerusalem took place during the 1947–1948 civil war phase of the 1947–1949 Palestine war. It saw Jewish and Arab militias in Mandatory Palestine, and later the militaries of Israel and Transjordan, fight for control over the city of Jerusalem.

The Unsolvable Holy City
A year later, Israel annexed East Jerusalem and offered the hundreds of thousands of Arabs living there Israeli citizenship, but most of them declined. The United Nations considers [PDF] the land occupied Palestinian territory. Arabs who live there today are counted in both Israeli and Palestinian censuses, and few are Israeli citizens.
Shortly after the Six Day War ended, Israel annexed East Jerusalem in a highly controversial move that is still not recognized internationally. Yet while East Jerusalem’s Palestinian residents abhor Israeli rule, many prefer Israeli medical and other services and remain wary of the Palestinian Authority

The PEIS Resolution
The Unification Of Jerusalem
On February 23, 2018, President Trump announced that the U.S. Embassy in Israel would reopen at the Arnona consular services site of the then U.S. Consulate-General in Jerusalem. The United States Embassy officially relocated to Jerusalem on May 14, 2018, to coincide with the 70th anniversary of the Israeli Declaration of Independence.
The location of the relocated embassy is at the site of the former U.S. consulate general in the Arnona neighborhood of West Jerusalem. ... The European Union’s foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini emphasized that all governments of EU member states were united on the issue of Jerusalem, and reaffirmed their commitment to a Palestinian State with East Jerusalem as its capital .... King Salman of Saudi Arabia said that moving the American embassy to Jerusalem would be a “flagrant provocation” to Muslims. ... This took the death toll to 16 Palestinians and one Israeli since Trump’s declaration.

West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem or Western Jerusalem (Hebrew: מַעֲרַב יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, Ma’aráv Yerushaláyim; Arabicدس الغربية, al-Quds al-Ġarbiyyah Ma’aráv Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القدس الغربية, al-Quds al-Ġarbiyyah) refers to the section of Jerusalem that was controlled by Israel at the end of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. However, recognition of Israeli sovereignty over only West Jerusalem is more widely accepted as a plausible diplomatic position, as the United Nations regards East Jerusalem as part of the Israeli-occupied West Bank.

East Jerusalem
Israel occupied East Jerusalem during the 1967 Six-Day War; since then, the entire city has been under Israeli control. The 1980 Jerusalem Law declared unified Jerusalem the capital of Israel, formalizing the effective annexation of East Jerusalem.

East Jerusalem Residency
Palestinians born in east Jerusalem are granted a form of permanent residency that can be revoked if they spend too much time living outside the city. They can apply for Israeli citizenship but must go through a difficult and uncertain bureaucratic process that can take months or years. Most refuse, because they do not recognize Israel’s annexation.

The City Within A City
The Muslim Quarter is the largest of the old city’s neighborhoods. It’s a confusing array of narrow alleys that are wonderful to wander in, get lost, and stumble upon surprising discoveries ... Here, you’ll also find mosques, caranvanserai, travelers’ hospices and bath houses that date from the Mameluk period (1267-1517). The main attraction of the Muslim quarter is, of course, the Temple Mount. There are several structures on the Temple Mount. The most famous is the Noble Sanctuary, better known as the Dome of the Rock. Contrary to popular misconception, the Dome of the Rock is not a mosque, but a shrine.
Vatican City, in full State of the Vatican City, Italian Stato della Città del Vaticano, landlocked ecclesiastical state, seat of the Roman Catholic Church, and an enclave in Rome, situated on the west bank of the Tiber River. Vatican City is the world’s smallest fully independent nation-state.

The Eternity Of Temple Mount
Under Jordanian control Jews were completely expelled from the Old City including the Jewish Quarter, and Jews were barred from entering the Old City for 19 years, effectively banning Jewish prayer at the site of the Western Wall. This period ended on June 10, 1967, when Israel gained control of the site following the Six-Day War. Three days after establishing control over the Western Wall site, the Moroccan Quarter was bulldozed by Israeli authorities to create space for what is now the Western Wall plaza.
The Temple Mount, located in Jerusalem, has twelve gates, one of which, Bab as-Sarai, is now closed to the public but was open during Ottoman rule. There are also six other sealed gates. This does not include the Gates of the Old City of Jerusalem which circumscribe the external walls except on the east side … Currently eleven gates are open to the Muslim public. Non-Muslims are permitted to enter only through the Moroccan (or Mughrabi) gate. The keys to all the gates, with the exception of the Moroccan gate are held by the Islamic Waqf; but they can only open or close gates with the permission of the Israeli police.
Temple Mount can be accessed by 11 gates in the Old City of Jerusalem but tourists and non-Muslims are only allowed to enter through the Moroccan Gate which is also known as Mugrabi Gate. This gate is located near the Western Wall Plaza close to Dung gate.
The trapezium shaped platform measures 488 m (1,601 ft) along the west, 470 m (1,540 ft) along the east, 315 m (1,033 ft) along the north and 280 m (920 ft) along the south, giving a total area of approximately 150,000 m2 (37 acres).
JERUSALEM—A small group of Jewish men clad in black and white stood in a quiet nook of Judaism’s holiest site one recent morning, gently rocking and murmuring prayers before Israeli police motioned for them to move on … Such a scene would have resulted in arrests just a few years ago for violating a longstanding unofficial agreement between Israel and Islamic religious authorities, which forbids non-Muslims from praying on the site known to Jews as the Temple Mount and to Muslims as the Noble Sanctuary. But after a decades-long campaign to change unwritten rules called the “status quo,” Jewish prayer has become more common—and under a new Israeli government could soon become routine.

What’s In It For Palestinians In The West Bank?