REFERENCES - Chapter 6 - The Palestinians In The Gaza Strip

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These are the references related to the CHAPTER 6: The Palestinians In The Gaza Strip section in the book.

As Mentioned In The Book

Who Are The Hamas?
Hamas ... is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamic fundamentalist, militant, and nationalist organization. It won the 2006 Palestinian legislative election and became the de facto governing authority of the Gaza Strip following the 2007 Battle of Gaza. It also holds a majority in the parliament of the Palestinian National Authority.

What Will Be The Hamas Contributions?

What Will Be The Hamas Military Contribution?
The northern Gaza Strip is only about 50 kilometers away from the city of Hebron in the West Bank. But few people are allowed to travel this short distance. Contrary to popular opinion, Israel did not begin restricting movement between Gaza and the West Bank when Hamas seized control of the Gaza Strip, but rather many years earlier. Today, out of millions of Palestinians, only a few thousand people are able to travel between Gaza and the West Bank each month.
Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh on Friday said his Islamist group that runs the Gaza Strip would not heed any calls to disarm, Palestinian news agency Ma’an reported. Israel, along with the United State and the European Union, have called for the “demilitarization” of terrorists groups in Gaza as a term for establishing lasting peace.
The Hamas Covenant or Hamas Charter, formally known in English as the Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement, was originally issued on 18 August 1988 and outlines the founding identity, stand, and aims of Hamas (the Islamic Resistance Movement). A new charter was issued by Hamas leader Khaled Mashal on 1 May 2017 in Doha ... The 2017 charter accepted for the first time the idea of a Palestinian state within the borders that existed before 1967 and rejects recognition of Israel which it terms as the “Zionist enemy.” It advocates such a state as transitional but also advocates “liberation of all of Palestine.” The new document also states that the group doesn’t seek war with the Jewish people but only against Zionism which it holds responsible for “occupation of Palestine”

What Will Be Hamas Land Contribution?
Buffer Zones
A fence along the border was first constructed by Israel in 1994 as a security barrier, and has been rebuilt and upgraded since. It was constructed by Israel to control the movement of people as well as goods between the Gaza Strip and Israel, which it could not achieve by normal border crossings ... Soldiers were also given new rules of engagement, which, according to Ha’aretz, allow soldiers to fire at anyone seen crawling there at night illegally into Israeli territory. Palestinians attempting to cross the barrier into Israel by stealth have been shot and killed.
However, facts on the ground demonstrate that the IOF has attacked civilian individuals, properties, and objects even when they have been at a distance of 1.5 kilometer from the border. According to reports by the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the ARA covers approximately 62.6 square kilometers—approximately 35% of Gaza’s cultivable land and 85% its maritime area—making these areas totally or partially inaccessible to Palestinians.
The buffer zone is Palestinian farm land adjacent to the Israeli-controlled border around Gaza. Israel has declared it a no-go area for “security” reasons. Venturing inside, in the area between the border and 300 metres out, is risking being shot by the Israeli army. Sometimes they shoot even beyond the 300-metre mark.
In October 2014 Egypt announced that they planned to expand the buffer zone between Gaza and Egypt, following a terrorist attack from Gaza that killed 31 Egyptian soldiers. The buffer was created “in a move meant to halt the passage of weapons and militants through cross-border smuggling tunnels but which also puts more pressure on the Palestinian militant Hamas group.” Egyptian authorities ordered residents living along the country’s eastern border to evacuate their homes prior to their demolishing. The buffer zone will include water-filled trenches to thwart tunnel diggers and will be 500 meter wide and extended along the 13 km border. Following the announcement by Ibrahim Mahlab, the Prime Minister of Egypt, that any residents unwilling to move would be forcefully removed from their homes, many residents left the area. On 17 November 2014, Egypt announced that the buffer zone would be doubled to 1 km due to the longer than expected tunnels discovered.

Gaza City
In the months following the 2006 election, an armed conflict broke out between the Palestinian political factions of Fatah and Hamas, resulting in the latter taking power in Gaza. Egypt and Israel consequently imposed a blockade on the Gaza Strip.[6] Israel eased the blockade allowing consumer goods in June 2010, and Egypt reopened the Rafah Border Crossing in 2011 to pedestrians.

What’s In It For Hamas?

Hamas Accepts PEIS Plan
The Fatah–Hamas reconciliation process refers to a series of reconciliation attempts to resolve the hostility between Fatah and Hamas since the 2006–2007 Fatah–Hamas conflict and Hamas’ subsequent takeover of the Gaza Strip. Despite a number of agreements, those attempts have not yet been successful, with Hamas still exercising full control of the Gaza Strip, despite the formation of the “unity government” in June 2014.
Islamic militant group Hamas has won a surprise victory in Wednesday’s Palestinian parliamentary elections. Preliminary results give Hamas 76 of the 132 seats in the chamber, with the ruling Fatah party trailing on 43. The win poses problems for efforts to restart peace talks with Israel, say analysts. Israel insists it will not deal with an authority including Hamas.

Hamas Rejects PEIS Plan
Sun, December 18, 2022 KHAN YOUNIS, Gaza Strip (AP) — Thousands of people on Sunday joined the funerals of eight young Palestinian men who drowned off the coast of Tunisia nearly two months ago as they tried to sail to new lives in Europe. The drownings have reverberated across Gaza, drawing attention to the dire conditions in the territory after a 15-year Israeli-Egyptian blockade but also prompting some rare public criticism of the ruling Hamas militant group.

What’s In It For The Insurgents?
Oct 20, 2012 · Hamas is working to suppress the more radical Islamic militant groups that have emerged in Gaza, made up of extremists who are challenging its cease-fire with Israel, activists say.

What’s In It For Palestinians In Gaza?
Yasser Arafat International Airport (Arabic: مطار ياسر عرفات الدولي Maṭār Yāsir ‘Arafāt ad-Dawli) (IATA: GZA, ICAO: LVGZ), formerly Gaza International Airport and Dahaniya International Airport, is located in the Gaza Strip, between Rafah and Dahaniya, close to the Egyptian border. The facility opened on 24 November 1998, and all passenger flights ceased in February 2001, during the Second Intifada. Israel bombed the radar station and control tower on 4 December 2001 and bulldozers cut the runway on 10 January 2002, rendering the airport inoperable.
The Port of Gaza is a small port near the Rimal district of Gaza City. It is the home port of Palestinian fishing-boats and the base of the Palestinian Naval Police, a branch of the Palestinian National Security Forces. Under the Oslo II Accord, the activities of the Palestinian Naval Police are restricted to 6 nautical miles from the coast. Since 2007, the Port of Gaza has been under an Israeli-imposed naval blockade as part of a blockade of the Gaza Strip, and activities at the port have been restricted to small-scale fishing.

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