REFERENCES - Chapter 8 - The New Palestinian Nation

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These are the references related to the CHAPTER 8: The New Palestinian Nation section in the book.

As Mentioned In The Book

What Are The Borders Of The New Nation?
This is a complete list of the U.S. states, its federal district and its major territories ordered by total area, land area and water area.
Petra (...), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu or Raqemo, is a historic and archaeological city in southern Jordan. It is adjacent to the mountain of Jabal Al-Madbah, in a basin surrounded by mountains forming the eastern flank of the Arabah valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba.
Neom (...) is a planned smart city in Tabuk Province in northwestern Saudi Arabia. The site is north of the Red Sea, east of Egypt across the Gulf of Aqaba, and south of Jordan.

Who Are The Denizens Of The New Nation?

Bedouin Palestinian Minority
Bedouin population in Egypt: 1,200,000. Bedouins living in the Sinai peninsula did not benefit much from employment in the initial construction boom due to low wages offered. Sudanese and Egyptian workers were brought there as construction labourers instead. When the tourist industry started to bloom, local Bedouins increasingly moved into new service positions such as cab drivers, tour guides, campgrounds or cafe managers. However, the competition is very high, and many Sinai Bedouins are unemployed. Since there are not enough employment opportunities, Tarabin Bedouins, as well as other Bedouin tribes living along the border between Egypt and Israel, are involved in inter-border smuggling of drugs and weapons, as well as infiltration of prostitutes and African labour workers.
Eastern Bedawi Bedouin in Egypt. Population: 1,264,000.
Sinai’s Bedouin, numbering approximately 400,000, have for centuries inhabited the large (23,500 square miles) and arid peninsula. They have a distinct cultural identity and a strong tribal organization that has withstood attempts control by successive powers to control their territory.
The population of the North Sinai Governorate as at 2015 was 434,781 people, comprising predominantly Bedouin tribesmen ... A significant economic activity of the Bedouin tribes has been smuggling. They have been active smuggling into the Gaza Strip supplies and weapons using cross-border tunnels as well as assisting illegal migrants into Israel. These activities have been curtailed by the Egyptian government crackdown of smuggling into the Gaza Strip and by the building of the Egypt—Israel barrier ... North Sinai has since 2011 been especially affected by the Sinai insurgency and measures by government forces to combat it, which has resulted in many casualties.
The Sinai is sparsely populated. A little over 430.000 inhabitants live in the North while around 165.000 people live in the southern half of the Peninsula.
According to population estimates, in 2015 the majority of residents in the governorate lived in urban areas, with an urbanization rate of 51.1%. Out of an estimated 167,426 people residing in the governorate, 85,502 people lived in urban areas as opposed to only 81,924 in rural areas. The Bedouin inhabit the Mount Sinai area. Due to poor accessibility, at times the orchards in the mountains have served to hide narcotics smugglers in the region.

Pan-Arab Palestinian Minority
Egypt: 102 million people (July 2021) / North Sinai: 428,000 / South Sinai: 166,000
So-called Islamic State (IS) is the most prominent and violent of the militant groups in Sinai, with a record of targeting civilians in that area and in mainland Egypt. Other groups active in the country are mostly aligned with IS’s arch jihadist rival, al-Qaeda.
The government is struggling to maintain security, especially in the Sinai. Egyptian officials say some of the country’s most dangerous militants established a foothold there during the rule of former President Mohamed Mursi of the Muslim Brotherhood.

Mandatory Palestinian Majority
Estimated Population in the Palestine Mid-Year by Governorate,1997-2026. Publish Date:26-05-2021.
This report presents the highlights of the 2018 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. The dataset of the World Urbanization Prospects contains the latest estimates of the urban and rural populations of 233 countries or areas from 1950 to 2018 and projections to 2050, as well as estimates of population size from 1950 to 2018 and projections to 2035 for all urban settlements with 300,000 inhabitants or more in 2018.
It is estimated that more than 6 million Palestinians live in a global diaspora.

The New Palestinians

What Are The Cities Of The New Nation?

The New Gaza City
Map of the coast between Gaza City and El Arish.
Gaza is a landscape of extreme economic deprivation born of the region’s complicated political dynamics — but one whose contours may soon become more common. That’s the premise behind the recently released book Open Gaza: Architectures of Hope, published by Terreform’s imprint Urban Research. Edited by Deen Sharp, an urban geographer who focuses on the Middle East, and essayist, theorist, activist, and provocateur Michael Sorkin, the book presents a vision of Gaza as a glimpse of an imminent future, where violence, surveillance, resource scarcity and provisional use of an extremely compromised built environment are visited on all.
Several military conflicts have seriously damaged the Gazan economy since Hamas took political control.
The climate of the Gaza Strip (an average temperature of 26 °C (79 °F) in August) and its 75 kilometres (47 mi) of coastline make it ideal for foreign tourism, which could provide a foundation for the economy of Gaza.
Gaza has many universities. The four main universities in the city are al-Azhar University – Gaza, al-Quds Open University, al-Aqsa University and the Islamic University of Gaza.
"Path to Peace" - is a joint mosaic creation, by thousands of people, towards hope, love, and happiness among all people. The creation is placed upon the border wall that divides the Gaza Strip and Israel, adjacent to the homes of Moshav Netiv HaAsara. The creation is seen from both sides of the wall, spreads on the gray security wall and completely changes the place's atmosphere.

The New El Arish
Salah al-Din Road (also known as Salaheddin Road and the Salah ad-Deen Highway) is the main highway of the Gaza Strip. State of Palestine, and extends over 45 kilometers, spanning the entire length of the territory from the Rafah Crossing in the south to the Erez Crossing in the north. The road is named after the 12th-century Muslim general Salah al-Din.
When Israel withdrew from the Sinai in 1982, Rafah was split into a Gazan part and an Egyptian part, dividing families, separated by barbed-wire barriers. The core of the city was destroyed by Israel and Egypt to create a large buffer zone. Rafah is the site of the Rafah Border Crossing, the sole crossing point between Egypt and the State of Palestine. Gaza’s only airport, Yasser Arafat International Airport, was located just south of the city. The airport operated from 1998 to 2001, until it was bombed and bulldozed by the Israeli military (IDF) after the killing of Israeli soldiers by members of Hamas.
ʻArish or el-ʻArīsh (Arabic: العريش al-ʿArīš Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [elʕæˈɾiːʃ]) is the capital and largest city (with 164,830 inhabitants as of 2012) of the North Sinai Governorate of Egypt, as well as the largest city on the Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast 344 kilometres (214 mi) northeast of Cairo and 45 kilometres (28 mi) west of the Egypt-Gaza border.
El Arish is the largest city in the Sinai Peninsula and the administrative capital of ?the governorate of North Sinai. El Arish is famous for its long beaches situated on the Mediterranean Sea and its numerous palm trees all over the city. El Arish is situated in a wonderful location along the Mediterranean Coast of Sinai and the city, the largest in Sinai, has a population of around one million inhabitants today.
El Arish port is situated in North Sinai, on the Mediterranean coast. General overview: Formerly a small fishing port, El Arish was developed into a commercial port in 1996 and now handles general and bulk cargoes including white sands, coal and salt.
The coastal zone of Gaza strip Palestine.
Gaza Marine is a natural gas field off the coast of the Gaza Strip. The Gaza Marine natural gas field is located in water about 36 kilometres (22 mi) offshore at a depth of 2,000 feet (610 m). The field was discovered in 2000 by BG Group, but as of 2021 its exploitation is still subject to negotiations ... The field has enough natural gas to supply the Palestinian territories and still have a surplus for export, making the Palestinian territories more energy independent.

The New Taba
The Egypt–Israel barrier or Egypt–Israel border fence (...) refers to a separation barrier built by Israel along its border with Egypt. Initial construction on the barrier began on 22 November 2010, and its original purpose as a common fence was to curb the large influx of illegal migrants from African countries into Israel. However, in the wake of the Egyptian Crisis after the 2011 Revolution, Israel’s southwestern border with Egypt experienced an increase in militant jihadist activity with the outbreak of the Sinai insurgency. In response, Israel upgraded the steel barrier—called Project Hourglass by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF)—to include cameras, radars, and motion detectors. In January 2013, construction on the barrier’s main section was completed; the final section was completed in December 2013.
Located 10 kilometers away from the city of Al Aqaba, 250 meters away from the Egyptian borders and after a beautiful ride from Taba’s coast, you will find the castle of Saladin on Pharaoh’s Island in Taba City ... The island and the castle remain intact. The reef around the island is popular with snorkelers and divers alike.

The New Nekhel
Nikhel (Arabic: نِخِل ; also spelled and pronounced Nikhl) is administratively a city (though realistically more of a town) and the capital of the eponymous markaz (county) North Sinai Governorate, Egypt. It is located in the heart of the Sinai Peninsula bordered to its south by the South Sinai Governorate, and is bordered from the west by the Sinai side of the Suez governorate, from the east by the international border of Egypt with Israel, and from the north by Al-Hasana markaz.
The Fortress of an-Nekhel is a Ksar (castle) located in the Nekhel Municipality of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. It holds a strategic location at the exact center of the peninsula. Excavations at the site have revealed remains dating from Ancient Egypt. It has historically been an important stop and staging ground for Muslim pilgrims undertaking the Hajj or Umra, holy Muslim pilgrimages.
The King’s Highway was a trade route of vital importance in the ancient Near East, connecting Africa with Mesopotamia. It ran from Egypt across the Sinai Peninsula to Aqaba, then turned northward across Transjordan, to Damascus and the Euphrates River ... The Highway began in Heliopolis, Egypt and then went eastward to Clysma (modern Suez), through the Mitla Pass and the Egyptian forts of Nekhl and Themed in the Sinai desert to Eilat and Aqaba.
Nekhel. Village in center of Sinai peninsula on ancient Haj route.