REFERENCES - Chapter 10 - The New Israel

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These are the references related to the CHAPTER 10: The New Israel section in the book.

As Mentioned In The Book
To solve the predicted annual budget deficit of the Arab State and reduction in public services due to loss of tax from the Jewish state, it was proposed that the Jewish state pay an annual subsidy to the Arab state and take on half of the latter’s deficit.

Why Would The Isrealis Purchase The West Bank?
The name Judea, when used in Judea and Samaria, refers to all of the area to the south of Jerusalem, including Gush Etzion and Har Hevron. The name Samaria, on the other hand, refers to all of the area to the north of Jerusalem.
At the same time, support for armed confrontation is highest amongst under 30-year-olds, with over 56% supporting a return to an intifada, or uprising, against Israel, according to the most recent poll in March.

How Do The Isrealis Pay For The West Bank?
Close to 1 million Jews were forced to leave Middle Eastern and North African countries after the creation of Israel — a fact that has become a political volleyball as Palestinian refugees have pushed for compensation for their own expulsion from Israel. Zabludoff peppers his paper with political references and proposals, and it seems likely that his figures will encounter protest from Palestinian groups. He estimates that the 550,000 Palestinian refugees lost $3.9 billion.

The Land Purchase
Government for Land Purchase
Israel’s overseas assets at the end of the first half of 2002 stood at $71.1 billion, according to figures released yesterday by the Bank of Israel’s foreign currency supervision department.
In 2020, net foreign assets for Israel was 609,760 million LCU. Net foreign assets of Israel increased from 196,943.3 LCU in 1971 to 609,760 million LCU in 2020 growing at an average annual rate of 86.46%.
The Israeli Citizens’ Fund is a sovereign wealth fund (SWF) in Israel. It was established in order to handle projected future windfall profits expected from the discovery of the Tamar and Leviathan gas fields. The fund will be managed by the Bank of Israel. The law establishing the fund was passed by Knesset in July 2014.[3] The law states that the fund will begin operating a month after the state’s tax revenues from natural gas exceeds one billion
30 May 2022 - Well after schedule, Israel will launch its sovereign wealth fund this week, when Minister of Finance signs the order to establish it on June 1. This follows the announcement by Israel Tax Authority head Eran Yaacov that the levies collected under the Natural Resources Profits Law has exceeded NIS 1 billion.
Israel is a well-developed modern country with the diversified economy and it does not need any foreign aid- and no country gives it to her. However, after the victorious for Israel war of 1973 ( Yom Kippur war) between Egypt and Israel, USA in pursue of its geopolitical goals of pushing the Soviet Union out of the Middle East pushed Israel to sign a peace agreement with Egypt and give them the Sinai back. United States were the peace broker and the guarantee of the peace, and in this capacity they obliged to provide the military aid to both countries.
Approximately 75% of Israel’s $3.1 billion annual foreign aid never leaves American bank accounts because funds are used for weapons manufactured right here at home in defense industry plants throughout the country. Thus, U.S. foreign aid to Israel is essentially a way of subsidizing the American defense industry while strengthening the military capabilities of its strategic ally.
Industry experts highlighted that approximately 800,000 defense jobs, intelligence jobs and other occupations are tied to the defense industry.

Non-Government for Land Purchase
A kibbutz (gathering, clustering; plural: kibbutzim) is an intentional community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.
In 1975 the UN General Assembly passed Resolution 3379, which said “Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination.” In 1991 the resolution was repealed with UN General Assembly Resolution 46/86,[251] after Israel declared that it would only participate in the Madrid Conference of 1991 if the resolution were revoked.
That is why it is time to remind the world that Zionism, at its very core, is a form of Humanism, grounded in the fundamental tenet of self-determination and national volition.
For decades, Israel’s left wing championed a Palestinian state side by side with a Jewish nation, keeping alive the idea even as it declined in popularity. Now, the left’s crushing defeat in last month’s election has dealt a punishing blow to those still committed to the so-called two-state solution.
Like it or loathe it, the inclusion of pro-settlement and pro-annexation parties in the next Israeli government is a recognition of political reality. Israeli public opinion is increasingly influenced by Mizrahi or Middle Eastern Jews whose ancestors were driven from their homes in Arab countries because of the conflict. These Jews often feel no responsibility for or guilt about the plight of the Palestinians.
Category:Jewish organizations by country.
The Federation portfolio in Israel is widespread and diverse. It includes working with our partners to ensure that every Jew who wants to live in Israel can, funding programs that help provide equal access to economic and educational opportunities, and supporting initiatives that encourage religious diversity and social equality. ?The Federation’s support of JDC covers a broad range of needs: saving the world’s poorest Jews, revitalizing Jewish life, empowering Israel’s future, development of tomorrow’s Jewish leaders and rescuing victims of global emergencies.

The Properties Purchase
Around 122,000 West Bank Palestinians are employed in Israel and Israeli settlements, according to official Israeli government figures. The vast majority work in construction and agriculture; their incomes constitute nearly a quarter of the Palestinian Authority economy.

Institutions for Properties Purchase
Israeli foreign aid relates to the development assistance and humanitarian aid provided by Israel to foreign countries. Israel provides assistance to developing countries to alleviate and solve economic and social problems through its international cooperation program of technical assistance, based on its own recent and ongoing experience in developing human and material resources. Israel’s Agency for International Development Cooperation, established as an agency of the Israeli Foreign Ministry in 1958 and known by its Hebrew acronym, MASHAV, is the primary vehicle for providing this aid.
Israeli nonprofits amassed US$35.3 billion in total income in 2015, roughly $45 billion in 2023 dollars, from all sources. That total included revenue like university tuition and concert ticket sales, as well as $4.4 billion – roughly $5.6 billion in 2023 dollars – in donations from all sources, foreign and domestic. Donations from outside Israel accounted for $2.8 billion of those gifts, about two-thirds of this kind of funding ... Much of this money, but not all of it, comes from American Jews and Jewish organizations.

Individuals for Properties Purchase
Israel has 131,000 millionaires, and its wealth is growing quickly, report finds Jewish state ranks 23rd worldwide in total number of wealthy people, and Israelis gained more assets in the past year than the citizens of almost any other country
About 2,500 millionaires expect to immigrate to Israel in 2022, according to a report by Henley & Partners ... According to the report, there are currently 107,000 millionaires living in Israel. Of these, 5,560 are valued at more than $10 million, 260 have a capital of over $100 million, and 25 are billionaires.
Oracle billionaire Larry Ellison has moved to Lanai, the Hawaiian island he’s spent half a billion dollars developing. Here’s how Ellison bought 98% of the island and turned it into a sustainability experiment.

What’s In It For The Israelis?
For an almost-guaranteed rainy experience, head inland on Kauai, where the lush, emerald Mount Waialeale, one of the wettest places on the planet, rises more than 5,000 feet into the sky and is covered by an ever-present blanket of clouds... An official record was established in 1982 when an astounding 683 inches of rain was recorded at the summit. Yet, just miles away, the rainfall drops dramatically - with an average only 10 inches of rain annually.

The Economic Returns
The West Bank Opportunities
February 16, 2023 - Israel's economy grew 6.5% in 2022 - slower than 2021's 8.6% expansion but still much stronger than most Western countries - the Central Bureau of Statistics said on Thursday, citing solid growth in consumer spending, exports and investment.
May 16, 2023 - The Finance Ministry on Tuesday trimmed its 2023 growth forecast to 2.7% from 3% and saying the slowdown would cut tax revenue this year by 5.3 billion shekels ($1.5 billion).
Around 122,000 West Bank Palestinians are employed in Israel and Israeli settlements, according to official Israeli government figures. The vast majority work in construction and agriculture; their incomes constitute nearly a quarter of the Palestinian Authority economy.
Area A is exclusively administered by the Palestinian National Authority; Area B is administered by both the Palestinian Authority and Israel. Area A comprises approximately 18% of the total territory of the West Bank and Area B about 22% of the territory, together home to some 2.8 million Palestinians.
This is a list of Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights.
June 19, 2023 - Israeli military forces raided a refugee camp in the northern West Bank on Monday, igniting the fiercest day of fighting in years as Palestinian militants detonated roadside bombs and Israeli helicopter gunships struck Palestinian gunmen to rescue troops trapped in the hourslong firefight.
The Israel Tax Authority (romanized: Rashut HaMisim B'Israel) is the taxation authority in Israel. It is an agency of the Ministry of Finance.

The New Palestine Opportunities
Today the Negev is blossoming, and not just because of the beautiful kalaniyot of early spring; but the Negev is metaphorically in full bloom as well. Israel has become a world leader in water technology and conservation by meeting the challenge of making a desert climate flourish. Israel has exported knowledge about growing crops in increasingly hot and dry conditions and sharing its flagship techniques of drip irrigation and recycling water to help countries around the world.

The Middle East Opportunities
The free trade agreement between Israel and Jordan was signed in 1995, one year after the 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994 ... The free trade agreement was updated in 2004.
29 May 2022 - Israel and Egypt are moving to strengthen economic ties and hope to reach $700 million in annual bilateral trade in the next three years, the Economy and Industry Ministry said Sunday.
The Trump administration mediated deals for four Arab countries to recognize Israel ... After years in which they did not publicly recognize the Jewish state, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Sudan and Morocco have agreed to normalize ties.
The decision by four Arab countries to forge ties with Israel in 2020 was not about peace, love, or understanding. The United Arab Emirates, Sudan, Morocco, and (to a lesser extent) Bahrain were all motivated by narrow interests—including the promise of either advanced weapons or diplomatic favors from the United States. And yet, the normalization deals stand as the most significant breakthrough in the Arab-Israeli conflict since the 1990s. Already, Israel’s interactions with the UAE appear to be warmer than its ties with Egypt and Jordan, Arab countries that forged peace with Israel decades ago. Thousands of Israeli tourists have visited Abu Dhabi since direct flights were inaugurated in late August. And earlier this month, an Emirati royal bought a large stake in an Israeli soccer team (which, perversely, is known for its racist shunning of Arab and Muslim players)—in the kind of high-profile investment that until recently seemed unimaginable.

Five reasons why Israel's peace deals with the UAE and Bahrain matter.
1) The Gulf States see opportunities for trade and more
2) Israel lessens its regional isolation
3) Donald Trump celebrates a foreign policy coup
4) The Palestinians feel betrayed
5) Iran has a new strategic headache
Trade with Jordan has also increased this year, from $136.2 million to $224.2 million, and trade with Egypt went from $92 million to $122.4 million. With Morocco, trade rose from $14.9 million to $20.8 million.
Morocco recognizes Israel, US to back kingdom in land dispute.
February 21, 2022 - Israel is targeting annual trade volume of $500 million with Morocco, up from $131 million currently as the two countries look to broaden cooperation since they normalised relations in 2020, Israel's economy minister said on Monday.
Israel and Bahrain hope to seal a free trade agreement before the end of the year, officials from both countries said on Monday. Israel normalised diplomatic relations with Bahrain and its Gulf neighbour the United Arab Emirates (UAE) two years ago under U.S. sponsorship. While economic ties with the UAE has since taken off, Israel's trade with Bahrain has lagged far behind.
Sudan to recognize Israel; U.S. to cut debt.

The New Israel Opportunities,_Divestment_and_Sanctions
Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) is a Palestinian-led movement promoting boycotts, divestments, and economic sanctions against Israel. Its objective is to pressure Israel to meet what the BDS movement describes as Israel's obligations under international law, defined as withdrawal from the occupied territories, removal of the separation barrier in the West Bank, full equality for Arab-Palestinian citizens of Israel, and "respecting, protecting, and promoting the rights of Palestinian refugees to return to their homes and properties".
Disinvestment from Israel is a campaign conducted by religious and political entities which aims to use disinvestment to pressure the government of Israel to put "an end to the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories captured during the 1967 military campaign." The disinvestment campaign is related to other economic and political boycotts of Israel.
Boycotts of Israel are the refusal and calls to refusal of having commercial or social dealings with Israel in order to influence Israel's practices and policies by means of using economic pressure. The specific objective of Israel boycotts varies; the BDS movement calls for boycotts of Israel "until it meets its obligations under international law, and the purpose of the Arab League's boycott of Israel was to prevent Arab states and others to contribute to Israel's economy. Israel believes that boycotts against it are antisemitic.
Following pressure from pro-Palestinian activists, Ben & Jerry’s announced Monday that it would stop selling ice cream in “Occupied Palestinian Territory.”
The Economist ranked Israel as the 4th most successful economy among developed countries for 2022. The IMF estimated Israel's GDP at US$564 billion and its GDP per capita at US$58,270 in 2023 (14th highest in the world), a figure comparable to other highly developed countries.
A report by the Strategic Foresight Group estimated the opportunity cost of conflict for the Middle East from 1991 to 2010 at $12 trillion. The report's opportunity cost calculates the peace GDP of countries in the Middle East by comparing the current GDP to the potential GDP in times of peace. Israel's share is almost $1 trillion, with Iraq and Saudi Arabia having approximately $2.2 and $4.5 trillion, respectively. For example, had there been peace and cooperation between Israel and Arab League nations since 1991, the average Israeli citizen would be earning over $44,000 instead of $23,000 in 2010.
Israeli tech companies raised $25.6 billion in ‘extraordinary’ 2021 — report Foreign investments account for record $18.64b of total capital amid ‘new reality’; 23 firms IPO on Wall Street, says IVC-Meitar report. Over the course of 2021, Israeli companies raised an “exceptional” $25.6 billion in private investments, shattering 2020’s previous record of $10.3 billion in funding,” according to data released Monday in the IVC-Meitar Israel Tech Review, a report published by the IVC Research Center and the law firm Meitar.
As of December 2020, 165 of the 193 total member states of the United Nations (UN) recognize Israel. 28 UN member states do not recognize Israel: 15 members of the Arab League (Algeria, Comoros, Djibouti, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen); ten non-Arab members of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brunei, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Niger, and Pakistan); and Cuba, North Korea, and Venezuela.
List of current member states: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
Top 4 Countries with the Largest Number of Muslims (2021): Indonesia (231,000,000) / Pakistan (212,300,000) / India (200,000,000) / Bangladesh (153,700,000)
The Abu Dhabi Investment Authority is a government-owned investment organization that manages the sovereign wealth fund for Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. According to the Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute's rankings, the ADIA sovereign wealth fund ranked as the third-largest in the world in 2022 with $708.75 billion in assets
The initiative to create the city of Neom emerged from Saudi Vision 2030, a plan to reduce Saudi Arabia's dependence on oil, diversify its economy and develop public-service sectors. Plans call for robots to perform functions such as security, logistics, home delivery and caregiving and for the city to be powered solely with wind and solar power.
The Israeli Ministry of Defense (MoD) has announced record defence exports for 2022, saying the contracts agreed on totalled USD12.5 billion, up from USD11.4 billion in 2021, which was itself a record high. The figures the MoD released on 14 June on the regions buying Israeli military products showed a massive increase in the ‘Abraham Accords' category, from USD853 million (7% of the total) in 2021 to USD2.962 billion (24%) in 2022.
Annual Israeli arms sales reached a new record in 2021, according to Defense Ministry figures released Tuesday, with officials citing a sharp increase in demand for Israeli-made weapons. The ministry’s International Defense Cooperation Directorate, known as SIBAT, said defense exports totaled $11.3 billion last year, up from $8.3 billion in 2020.
Israeli defense industries are recognized for their exceptional innovation and creativity in producing advanced technology, and play a significant role in maintaining Israel's qualitative military edge. Many of these tools have proven their value and strength on the battlefield. Their capabilities support research & development, and generate solutions that cater to various security needs in the global market ... Defense exports comprise approximately 10% of Israel's overall exports and play a monumental role in Israel's economy by creating jobs and generating revenue. The industry also serves as an important tool for the State of Israel to foster relationships and deepen strategic partnerships with countries and security entities across the globe.

The Diplomatic Returns
Israel recognizes the Republic of Korea as the sole legitimate government in the Korean Peninsula and has never recognized the legitimacy of North Korea, which has also never recognized Israel.
SEPTEMBER 28, 2022 - The free-trade agreement between Israel and South Korea is set to take effect on December 1, after the parliament in Seoul gave it final approval on Tuesday ... Trade between Israel and South Korea reached $3.5 billion in 2021, a 35% increase from the previous year.
Over the years, North Korea has supplied missile and weapons technology to Israel's neighbours, including Iran, Syria, Libya, and Egypt. In 1993, Israeli foreign minister Shimon Peres offered North Korea $1 billion in foreign investment and technical assistance in gold mining operations in exchange for halting the sale of 150 Nodong medium-range ballistic missiles to Iran. The deal was halted under pressure from the United States after North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Syria, which has a history of confrontations with Israel, has long maintained a military relationship with North Korea based on the cooperation between their respective nuclear and chemical weapon programs. On 6 September 2007, the Israeli Air Force conducted Operation Outside the Box on a target in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria. According to media reports, 10 North Koreans who "had been helping with the construction of a nuclear reactor in Syria" were killed during the airstrike.

Syria And The Golan Heights
At the onset of the battle, the Israeli brigades of some 3,000 troops, 180 tanks and 60 artillery pieces faced off against three infantry divisions with large armor components comprising 28,000 Syrian troops, 800 tanks and 600 artillery pieces. In addition, the Syrians deployed two armored divisions from the second day onwards.
The Purple Line was the ceasefire line between Israel and Syria after the 1967 Six-Day War and serves as the de facto border between the two countries.
At the time of the cessation of hostilities, Israel had seized Syria's Golan Heights, the Jordanian-annexed West Bank (including East Jerusalem), and Egypt's Sinai Peninsula as well as the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip. The displacement of civilian populations as a result of the Six-Day War would have long-term consequences, as around 280,000 to 325,000 Palestinians and 100,000 Syrians fled or were expelled from the West Bank and the Golan Heights, respectively.
UN Peacekeepers have been stationed in the Golan Heights since 1974. The mission, known as the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force, or UNDOF, deployed to the border region of Israel and Syria following a ceasefire in May 1974. Technically, UNDOF is supposed to monitor the “disengagement” of Israeli and Syrian forces along what is known as a “zone of separation.” This is essentially a narrow strip of land in the Golan region. On one side is Syria. On the other is Israeli occupied Golan Heights, land seized by Israel in the 1967 war.
The Valley of Tears is the name given to an area in the Golan Heights after it became the site of a major battle in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, known as the Valley (or Vale) of Tears Battle, which was fought from 6 October to 9 October. Although massively outnumbered, the Israeli forces managed to hold their positions and on the fourth day of the battle the Syrians withdrew, just as the Israeli defenses were almost at the point of collapse.
Trump Heights is a planned Israeli settlement in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights named after and in honour of Donald Trump, the 45th President of the United States.
Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett said Sunday that his country plans to double the number of settlers living in the Golan Heights ... "After around 10 years of terrible civil war in Syria, every knowledgeable person in the world understands that it is preferable to have Israeli heights that are quiet, flourishing and green as opposed to the alternative," Bennett said. "The Golan Heights are Israeli; this is self-evident," he added.
Al-Nusra Front, also known as Front for the Conquest of Syria, was a Salafi jihadist militant organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War. Its aim was to overthrow Bashar al-Assad's Ba'athist government and establish an Islamic state in Syria.
31 July 2018 - The Syrian government regained control of the frontier with the Israel’s Golan Heights for the first time in seven years on Monday, after Islamic State-linked militants gave up their last pocket of territory in the area.

Lebanon And The Northern Border
About 95% of the population of Lebanon is either Muslim or Christian, split across various sects and denominations. Because the matter of religious balance is a sensitive political issue, a national census has not been conducted since 1932, before the founding of the modern Lebanese state. Consequently, there is an absence of accurate data on the relative percentages of the population of the major religions and groups.
The PLO was able to maintain a strong presence, particularly in Southern Lebanon for a number of years and at times was able to have a positive impact on the local population, but due to religious tensions and a confusion of structure was often the cause of dissatisfaction and fear amongst Lebanese citizens.
Hezbollah's role in the Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon gained the organization much respect within Lebanon and the wider Arab and Islamic world, particularly among the country's large Shi'a community.
... The Lebanese Civil War came to an end. A principal reason for the end of active hostilities was the exhaustion brought on by the fifteen years of warfare. None of the groups was able to establish dominance over others, and sectarian divisions continued as before. ... All the militias were disarmed in March 1991 with the exception of Hezbollah, which continued its “resistance” against Israel in the border zone. Syria did not completely withdraw from Lebanon until 2005.,_SLA_collapse,_and_surrender
As the Israeli withdrawal rapidly progressed, SLA militiamen were left with few choices. The Lebanese government, Hezbollah and many civilians in the area considered them traitors and collaborators. In addition, they were told that Israel's border would be closed after the withdrawal. Many were terrified of being captured (and possibly killed) by Hezbollah guerrillas or vengeful mobs, or being jailed or executed by the Lebanese government.
After the Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon and the death of Hafez al-Assad in 2000, the Syrian military presence faced criticism and resistance from the Lebanese population. With the consequent adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1559 and following the assassination of the Lebanese ex-premier Rafik Hariri and allegations of Syrian involvement in his death, a public uprising nicknamed the Cedar Revolution swept the country. On 5 March 2005, Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad announced that Syrian forces would begin its withdrawal from Lebanon in his address to the Syrian parliament. Syria completed its full withdrawal from Lebanon on 30 April 2005.
After Israel withdrew in 2000, Hezbollah resisted pressure to disarm and continued to strengthen its military wing, the Islamic Resistance. In some ways, its capabilities now exceed those of the Lebanese army, its considerable firepower used against Israel in the 2006 war.
The 2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid was a cross-border attack carried out by Lebanon-based Hezbollah militants on an Israeli military patrol on 12 July 2006 on Israeli territory. Using rockets fired on several Israeli towns as a diversion, Hezbollah militants crossed from Lebanon into Israel and ambushed two Israeli Army vehicles, killing three soldiers and capturing two other soldiers.
Israel attacked both Hezbollah military targets and Lebanese civilian infrastructure, including Beirut's Rafic Hariri International Airport. The IDF launched a ground invasion of Southern Lebanon. Israel also imposed an air and naval blockade. Hezbollah then launched more rockets into northern Israel and engaged the IDF in guerrilla warfare from hardened positions. The conflict is believed to have killed between 1,191 and 1,300 Lebanese people, and 165 Israelis. It severely damaged Lebanese civil infrastructure, and displaced approximately one million Lebanese and 300,000–500,000 Israelis ... On Wednesday 16 July 2008, in accordance with the mandates of Resolution 1701, Hezbollah transferred the coffins of captured Israeli soldiers, Ehud Goldwasser and Eldad Regev, in exchange for incarcerated Palestine Liberation Front militant Samir Kuntar, four Hezbollah militants captured by Israel during the war, and bodies of about 200 other Lebanese and Palestinian militants held by Israel. Until that time, Hezbollah had provide no information on Goldwasser and Regev's condition and disallowed the Red Cross from visiting them.
In November 2018, the IDF launched Operation Northern Shield to expose and destroy terror tunnels dug by Hezbollah from southern Lebanon into Israel. The tunnels crossed under the Blue Line, violating the terms of UN Resolution 1701.
Hezbollah's military operations in Syria have been subject to widespread denounciation across the Arab World. It's suppport in Lebanon has suffered a drastic dent, and opposition has also emerged from its Shia base in Lebanon and beyond. Iraqi Shi'ite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr attacked Hassan Nasrallah's policy for pursuing an Iranian agenda rooted in Shia sectarianism over a Sunni-majority country. Sadrists had long been advocate of activism solely in Shia majority countries. An elder Sadrist leader denounced Hezbollah, accusing it of "killing more Syrians than Israelis”.
Al Jazeera’s Zeina Khodr reporting from the Lebanese capital, Lebanon said a “cautious calm” was holding at the moment ... “Both sides really have been careful not to risk a major flare-up. So, when Israel strikes back, they strike back in open areas. When rockets are launched from Lebanon, they avoid casualties. Both sides really have a lot to lose if there is a major escalation,” she added.
Iran has been alleged to have founded and funded Hezbollah, a relationship that some say continues to this day in an apparent nexus with Syria. During the 2006 Lebanon War, between the state of Israel and Hezbollah, Iran came out in firm support of Hezbollah in particular, and Lebanon in general.
Lebanese support for Hezbollah continues to decline and protests remain popular, according to November 2020 polling in Lebanon.
Hezbollah’s intention to participate in Lebanese governmental politics incentivized the expansion of its social services. Hezbollah underwent a process of “Lebanonization”, which entailed refraining from employing violent means domestically, and the dilution of their dogmatic beliefs and goals which go against accepting the sectarian pluralism of the Lebanese political institutional landscape. Specifically, Hezbollah reneged on its goal of establishing an Islamic state in Lebanon. This process began in the late 1980s, and reached its zenith in the early 2000s. Correspondingly, the inclusion of non-Shiite Lebanese in Hezbollah’s social services facilitated the integration of Hezbollah into the Lebanese political system and augmented its legitimacy. According to a report from the Pew Research Center, Hezbollah has significant support from Lebanese Christians (31%), and modest support from Lebanese Sunnis (9%).
Though the two main sects within Islam, Sunni and Shia, agree on most of the fundamental beliefs and practices of Islam, a bitter split between the two goes back some 14 centuries. The divide originated with a dispute over who should succeed the Prophet Muhammad as leader of the Islamic faith he introduced. Today, about 85 percent of the approximately 1.6 billion Muslims around the world are Sunni, while 15 percent are Shia, according to an estimate by the Council on Foreign Relations. While Shia represent the majority of the population in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain and Azerbaijan and a plurality in Lebanon, Sunnis are the majority in more than 40 other countries, from Morocco to Indonesia. Despite their differences, Sunni and Shia have lived alongside each other in relative peace for most of history. But starting in the late 20th century, the schism deepened, exploding into violence in many parts of the Middle East as extreme brands of Sunni and Shia Islam battle for both religious and political supremacy.
The Shebaa Farms, also spelled Sheba'a Farms, are a small strip of land at the intersection of the Lebanese-Syrian border and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. The territory is named for the farms within it which were historically tended by the inhabitants of the Lebanese town of Shebaa. It is about 11 kilometres (7 mi) long and 2.5 kilometres (2 mi) wide.
In 2010, Israel discovered massive deposits of natural gas off its coast in the Mediterranean Sea. While Israel's find is within its territorial exclusive economic zone, the dispute stems from the possibility that the gas field spans to Lebanon's boundary. A general principle in such a situation is the Rule of capture where each side is permitted to lift as much as it can on its side. Israel has already started exploration and construction on its side, while Lebanese authorities have not yet officially demarcated its exclusive economic zone or initiated a process of attracting bids for exploration rights
Israel touted the agreement as strengthening regional stability and hoped the deal would bring security to its northern maritime boundary since it would quell threats by Hezbollah, which has said it would abide by a maritime border deal. Randa Slim of the Middle East Institute said the deal could eventually lead to negotiations on where to draw the Israel–Lebanon land border.
The relationship between the two countries is regulated by the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994, which formally ended the state of war that had existed between the two countries since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, and also established diplomatic relations, besides other matters.
It’s been a year since one of the world’s largest ever non-nuclear explosions ripped through Lebanon’s capital, killing more than 200 people ... At just after 6 p.m. on August 4, 2020, hundreds of metric tons of ammonium nitrate ignited, sparking the massive blast in the city’s port. The industrial chemicals had been improperly stored there for years due to the failure to act by successive governments and lawmakers across the political divide.
Tel Aviv’s city hall lit up in the colors of the Lebanese flag in solidarity on Wednesday night, following the deadly explosion in Beirut the day before.

Iran And The Nuclear Weapons
The relations between Iran and Israel can be divided into four major phases: the ambivalent period from 1947 to 1953, the friendly period during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty from 1953 to 1979, the worsening period following the Iranian Revolution from 1979 to 1990, and the ongoing period of open hostility since the end of the Gulf War in 1991.
He is best known for convening the Council of Clermont which ignited the series of Christian conquests known as the Crusades ... While the First Crusade resulted in occupation of Jerusalem from the Fatimids and consequent massacre of the Muslim population there, Pope Urban II died before he could receive this news ... He was beatified by Pope Leo XIII on 14 July 1881.
Wirathu has been accused of stoking violence against Muslims and the Rohingya in Myanmar, and was one of the most prominent faces of the 969 movement - a Buddhist nationalist movement which calls on Buddhists to shop, sell property and marry within their own religion. At the height of his popularity, he had tens of thousands of followers online watching his sermons on social media or attending his rallies. He was catapulted into the public view for his speeches in 2012, when deadly violence broke out in Rakhine state between Muslims, mainly Rohingya, and Buddhists. The following year, Time magazine put him on their front cover with the headline: The Face of Buddhist Terror?
BUDDHISM is generally regarded, with good reason, as the most peaceful of world religions. Like other south Asian faiths, it stresses the principle of ahimsa, the “non-injury” of other living things. Yet its teachings also emphasise that violence harms the spiritual state of the perpetrator, as well as the victim. Malicious thoughts or deeds are regarded as obstacles on the path to nirvana, the self-transcendence which is the end-point of all spiritual endeavour. Early Buddhist history contains strong pacifist messages.
Russian Orthodox Patriarch Kirill, leader of Russia's dominant religious group, has sent his strongest signal yet justifying his country's invasion of Ukraine — describing the conflict as part of a struggle against sin and pressure from liberal foreigners to hold "gay parades" as the price of admission to their ranks.
Arab people, or Arabs, are those people who inhabit the Arab world. “Arab world” is considered to be located in North Africa and Western Asia. Arabs are distinguished from other people on the basis of culture, genealogy, and language. Persian people, or Persians, are those people who are a part or group of Iranian peoples. Iranian peoples are people who speak Iranian languages and belong to the Indo-European family.
For 40 years, Tehran’s philosophy has been simple and direct: ‘Death to America!’
The death-to-America chant is heard routinely. The chant, “marg bar Amreeka” in Farsi, dates back even before Iran’s 1979 Islamic Revolution. Once used by communists, it was popularized by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the revolution’s figurehead and Iran’s first supreme leader after the U.S. Embassy takeover by militants. It remains a staple of hard-line demonstrations, meetings with current Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, official ceremonies, parliamentary sessions and main Friday prayer services in Tehran and across the country.
Throughout the existence of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the slogan has formed a pillar of its revolutionary values. It is regularly chanted at Friday prayers and other public events, which is often accompanied by a burning of the flag of the United States. These events include the November 4 anniversary of the U.S. embassy seizure, which Iranian leaders declared in 1987 as a national holiday, called "Death to America Day." State-sponsored murals that feature the slogan "Death to America" are common in Iranian cities, particularly Tehran.
Israel's role in the Iran–Iraq War consisted of support provided by Israel to Iran during the Iran–Iraq War from 1980 to 1988. During the war, Israel was one of the main suppliers of military equipment to Iran. Israel also provided military instructors during the war and direct support to Iran's war effort, when it bombed and destroyed Iraq's Osirak nuclear reactor, during Operation Opera. The nuclear reactor was a central component of Iraq's nuclear weapons program.
The source said PIJ (Palestinian Islamic Jihad) has become a dominant force in the northern West Bank, largely thanks to the financial aid it receives from Iran. “Islamic Jihad is using Iranian money to buy weapons and loyalty in the West Bank,” the source said. “The organization is paying high salaries to its members.”
The danger the North Korea-Iran arms trade poses to US interests is perhaps best illustrated by the Iranian ballistic missile program. All of Iran’s liquid-fuel short-range and medium-range missiles are derived from North Korean imports. Thanks to the DPRK’s assistance, Iran is now capable of reaching all its regional strategic targets including Israel and Saudi Arabia. Today, the two states are cooperating on a liquid-fuel rocket engine suited for long-range missiles such as intercontinental ballistic missiles and satellite launch vehicles.
Iran and North Korea are the foremost destabilizing actors in their regions and rank among the world’s most repressive regimes. The threats posed by Iran and North Korea to the U.S. and its allies are broad and multifaceted??. The Iranian-North Korean threat is compounded by the two nations’ cooperation, especially in the realm of nuclear and ballistic missile development.
Much of Iran’s nuclear talent fled the country in the wake of the Revolution. This loss, compounded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini’s opposition to nuclear technology, resulted in the near disintegration of Iran’s nuclear program post-1979. Work on nuclear projects that had been ongoing under the Shah, such as construction of the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant was suspended. However, in 1984 Khomeini expressed a renewed Iranian interest in nuclear power, seeking the assistance of international partners to complete construction at Bushehr.
A forgotten letter in which the founder of the Iranian revolution, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, cited a need for nuclear weapons has stoked a debate over whether to negotiate with the West and raised questions about Iran’s nuclear intentions today.
The underlying principle ... is this sanctity of human life. That part is enshrined in Islamic law. It's true that the Islamic tradition, no more than the Christian tradition or the Jewish tradition, has never been a pacifist tradition as a whole. They've all had a notion of, if you would, a just war.
It’s now widely accepted that Stuxnet was created by the intelligence agencies of the United States and Israel. Stuxnet was first identified by the infosec community in 2010, but development on it probably began in 2005. The U.S. and Israeli governments intended Stuxnet as a tool to derail, or at least delay, the Iranian program to develop nuclear weapons.
Israel has carried out various attacks on Iranian nuclear-related sites since 2004, and its agents have assassinated five of Fakhrizadeh’s colleagues since 2007, the Times reported.
The attack on Iran's key Natanz nuclear site Sunday was caused by an explosive device that was smuggled into the plant and detonated remotely, the New York Times reported Tuesday. Citing an unnamed intelligence official, the report said that the explosion, which has been attributed by foreign media to Israel, damaged Natanz's primary and backup electrical systems. Behrouz Kamalvandi, a spokesperson for Iran's Atomic Energy Organization, said that the attack blew a hole so big that he managed to fall into it, and suffered injuries.
The reality of living in a world with nuclear weapons means some countries want protection from nuclear weapons even if they ultimately believe in the goal of nonproliferation. One way countries handle this dilemma is by agreeing to security guarantees, usually pledges from a nuclear-armed country to protect non–nuclear armed allies in the event of an attack.
... Last year Saudi Crown Prince Mohamed Bin Salman said “if Iran develops a nuclear bomb, we will follow suit.” He said this even though Saudi Arabia signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1988.
Iranian frozen assets in international accounts are calculated to be worth between $100 billion and $120 billion.
Mon, July 10, 2023 at 3:26 PM CDT - A U.S. intelligence assessment says Iran is not pursuing nuclear weapons at the moment but has ramped up activities that could help it develop them. The assessment from the Office of the Director of National Intelligence released Monday says Iran has moved to increase its capacity to produce an atomic bomb since 2020 but has stopped short of that so far.
The Iran–Israel proxy conflict, also known as the Iran–Israel proxy war or Iran–Israel Cold War, is an ongoing proxy war between Iran and Israel. The conflict involves threats and hostility by Iran's leaders against Israel, and their declared objective to dissolve the Jewish state on the basis of, or not on the basis of anti-semitic rhetoric and reasoning. Iran has provided funding, weapons, and training to groups including Lebanese Hezbollah, and Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), which have vowed and carried out attacks on Israel, and which have been designated terrorist organisations by many countries. Because of the hostility, Israel is concerned by Iran's nuclear weapons program and missile program, and is seeking to downgrade Iran's allies and proxies, as well as preventing Iranian entrenchment in Syria, another sworn enemy of Israel.
The State of Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons. Estimates of Israel's stockpile range between 80 and 400 nuclear warheads, and the country is believed to possess the ability to deliver them in several methods, including by aircraft, as submarine-launched cruise missiles, and via the Jericho series of intermediate to intercontinental range ballistic missiles. Its first deliverable nuclear weapon is thought to have been completed in late 1966 or early 1967; which would make it the sixth country in the world to have developed them. However, Israel maintains a policy of deliberate ambiguity, never officially denying nor admitting to having nuclear weapons, instead repeating over the years that "Israel will not be the first country to introduce nuclear weapons to the Middle East". Israel has also declined to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), despite international pressure to do so, saying that would be contrary to its national security interests.
The combined cost of the nuclear program, the creation of the Revolutionary Guards and the Basiji militia, assistance to Syria, to Hezbollah and to Hamas and financing terror worldwide has reached monstrous proportions. Some say billions of dollars over decades, leaving almost nothing for developing the country in spite of the considerable sums derived from the sale of its oil.
The revolution forced the Shah to flee Iran on January 16, 1979. Two weeks later, on February 1, Khomeini entered the country, being welcomed by millions of people. The Jews of Tehran were again “advised” to welcome Khomeini’s arrival on February 13.
Feb. 18 (1979) – Iran cut diplomatic relations with Israel.
The two countries enjoyed good relations for 30 years, but since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Israel and Iran have been a study in enmity – despite not sharing a border or having any territorial disputes.
"Where's the beef?" is a catchphrase in the United States and Canada, introduced as a slogan for the fast food chain Wendy's in 1984. Since then it has become an all-purpose phrase questioning the substance of an idea, event, or product.

The Political Returns
Premier Yitzhak Rabin declared in the Knesset today that the Rabat summit had strengthened Israel’s resolve not to negotiate with the PLO. To those who urged such negotiations, he replied that there could be no basis for talks with terrorist organizations which deny our existence, “and use terrorist methods to further their purposes.”

Israel’s Left And Right Wings
Politics in Israel are dominated by Zionist parties. They traditionally fall into three camps, the first two being the largest: Labor Zionism, Revisionist Zionism and Religious Zionism. There are also several non-Zionist Orthodox religious parties and non-Zionist secular left-wing groups, as well as non-Zionist and anti-Zionist Israeli Arab parties.
Whatever Israel’s recent war with Hamas (which just started a ceasefire) means for the country’s struggle to finally establish a functioning government—and the third Gaza war in the last nine years already has scrambled the outcome of Israel’s fourth election in the last two years—one thing will not change: Israel’s shift to the right ... (The right wing, new or old,) will do everything possible to preserve Israel’s dominance in the regional conflict. They share the aversion to concessions and rejection of a Palestinian state. And without a final status political agreement, Israel and Palestine can look forward to future rounds of war.
A popular corollary of this thesis is that Israel, as it moves rightward, is becoming less democratic, less respectful of civil rights, and less tolerant of minorities. Both halves of this thesis are wrong. In fact, Israeli politics have shifted sharply to the left; ideas once confined to the far-left fringe are now mainstream. And civil rights, democracy, and treatment of minorities have all been improving.
These two parties – Shas and UTJ – have always been focused almost exclusively on the interests of the haredi community alone, such as maintaining a traditional haredi lifestyle; subsidies for yeshivas; preserving a separate public-school system; exemptions from service in the IDF; and subsidies for large families. All of these issues have remained at the forefront of both of these parties, whereas issues such as Israel’s borders, settlements and annexations were never considered important when it came to voting in the Knesset.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, also known as the First Arab–Israeli War, was the second and final stage of the 1948 Palestine war. It formally began following the end of the British Mandate for Palestine at midnight on 14 May 1948; the Israeli Declaration of Independence had been issued earlier that day, and a military coalition of Arab states entered the territory of British Palestine in the morning of 15 May.

Israel’s Arab And Bedouin Minorities
The House voted overwhelmingly to pass a resolution affirming America’s strong support for Israel and condemning antisemitism, a move that sought to put Democrats on the spot after a progressive leader called the country racist. The measure passed 412-9, with one member voting present.
The Palestinian American Rep. Tlaib, who spoke out in near tears against the resolution on the House floor, deserves particular mention. Tlaib correctly pointed out that the charge that Israel is an apartheid state has now reached the realm of objective reality unless you’re in Washington, with everyone from the United Nations to human rights groups like Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, and Israel’s own B’tselem reaching that conclusion. It’s also been a charge made by not just storied survivors of South African apartheid like Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu, but even some former Israeli prime ministers.
Arab-Israeli women actively participate in government and public life. Hussniya Jabara was the first Israeli-Arab woman to serve in the Knesset. According to section 15 of the States Civil Service [appointments], women and Arab-Israeli citizens are entitled to affirmative action in civil service employment.
Counter to the image of the Bedouin as fierce stateless nomads roving the entire region, by the turn of the 20th century, much of the Bedouin population in Palestine was settled, semi-nomadic, and engaged in agriculture according to an intricate system of land ownership, grazing rights, and water access. Today, many Bedouin call themselves 'Negev Arabs' rather than 'Bedouin', explaining that 'Bedouin' identity is intimately tied in with a pastoral nomadic way of life – a way of life they say is over. Although the Bedouin in Israel continue to be perceived as nomads, today all of them are fully sedentarized, and about half are urbanites.
This law was enacted in the final days of the 12th Knesset, 17 March 1992. Shortly after it was introduced into Israeli constitutional documents, it became prevalent in human rights discourse, as well as in freedom of speech cases.
Its standard form, known as Modern Hebrew, is the main medium of life in Israel. Arabic is used mainly by Israel's Arab minority which comprises about one-fifth of the population. Arabic has a special status under Israeli law.
"Israeli Arabs were not required to perform mandatory military service and, in practice, only a small percentage of Israeli Arabs served in the military. Those who did not serve in the army had less access than other citizens to social and economic benefits for which military service was a prerequisite or an advantage, such as housing, new-household subsidies, and employment, especially government or security-related industrial employment. The Ivri Committee on National Service has issued official recommendations to the Government that Israel Arabs not be compelled to perform national or 'civic' service, but be afforded an opportunity to perform such service."
Israeli President Isaac Herzog gave a joint address to Congress Wednesday (July 19, 2023) in honor of the 75th anniversary of his country’s statehood … “But criticism of Israel must not cross the line into negation of the State of Israel’s right to exist. Questioning the Jewish people’s right to self-determination, is not legitimate diplomacy, it is antisemitism,” he said. “Vilifying and attacking Jews, whether in Israel, in the United States, or anywhere in the world is antisemitism.”
Israeli forces on Monday demolished the Palestinian al-Araqib Bedouin village in the southern Negev region for the 219th time, according to a local activist ... The village was first destroyed in 2010 and rebuilt after every demolition since then. Israeli authorities claim that the site where it is located falls under "state land."
"The results of the survey illustrate that the Bedouin population in the Negev, numbering over 300,000 people, which is made up entirely of Israeli citizens, feels a lack of belonging to Israeli society as a whole regardless of political position,” said Hagai Raznik, head of the Reifman Institute.
Israel’s Arabs, though, say that they have long felt alienated from the state and that the debates about the future of the Jewish people don’t have much to do with their day-to-day problems, such as crime and unemployment. Many say they already feel like second-class citizens.
Several Bedouins lose citizenship despite family in IDF, birth in Israel. Among some of the complainants are Bedouins who have apparently been in Israel as citizens for 20, 30 and 40 years, with a history of paying taxes, and with parents who completed IDF service.
Israeli government documents and media refer to Arab citizens as “Arabs” or “Israeli Arabs,” and some Arabs use those terms themselves. Global news media usually use similar phrasing to distinguish these residents from Arabs who live in the Palestinian territories. Some members of this community self-identify as “Palestinian citizens of Israel,” or just as “Palestinian” to indicate their rejection of Israeli identity. Others prefer to be referred to as Arab citizens of Israel for various reasons.

Israel’s National Identity
The choice of about half of Israel’s Arab citizens not to exercise the right to vote in Israel’s last parliamentary election in April dramatically affected election results, while also reflecting some powerful basic trends in Israel’s Arab society. While the voting rate—49 percent—was higher than expected due to concerns over an extensive election boycott by Israel’s Arab citizens, it was nonetheless a low point in Arab participation in the democratic game. With the upcoming election, the question of whether this boycott will be sustained is one of the major questions surrounding the voting in September 2019.
While the judicial reform proposal by Netanyahu’s controversial coalition government has sparked protests and divided the country politically, Israel’s roughly 300,000 Bedouins do not seem bothered – while 80% of the survey respondents said they don’t know about the reform at all, an additional 13% said they knew very little.
The Bedouin population has increased tenfold since the establishment of the State (1948), due to a high natural increase – about 5% – which is unparalleled in Israel, or elsewhere in the Middle East. A high fertility rate related to traditional social values regarding size of family and/or tribe as a political advantage, as well as modern health and medical services with easy access, which reduced infant mortality and increased life expectancy, are responsible for this figure ... The Bedouin in Galilee and the Jezreel valley, numbering about 50,000, unlike those in the Negev and in the Central region, hail from the Syrian desert ... One example of the good relations between the State and the Bedouin in the North is the tolerance displayed by the government regarding violations of building laws, non-expropriation of land and the establishment of the townships of Beit Zarzir and Ka’abiya.
The Israeli philosopher Yeshayahu Leibowitz introduced the term "Judeo-Nazis." He argued that continued military occupation of the Palestinian territories would lead to the moral degradation of Israeli Defense Force (IDF), with individuals committing atrocities for state security interests. In 1988, Holocaust survivor Yehuda Elkana warned that the tendency in Israel to see all potential threats as existential and all opponents as Nazis would lead to Nazi-like behavior by Jews. During the First Intifada, historian Omer Bartov was enraged by Yitzhak Rabin's call to "break the bones" of Palestinians and wrote him a letter arguing that, based on Bartov's research, the IDF could be similarly brutalized as the German Army was during World War II. One Israeli nationalist told Amos Oz that he did not care if Israel was called a Judeo-Nazi state, it was "better [to be] a living Judeo-Nazi than a dead saint." In 2018, Noam Chomsky cited Leibowitz, arguing that he was right in his prediction that the occupation was producing Judeo-Nazis.
As hundreds of thousands continue to march in the street against the government, the president has warned of standing at the edge of an abyss, while leading commentators warn that a civil war has already started. This heating conflict is mainly between two types of Zionism, the pre and post-1967 Zionism; in other words, between the more liberal and secular Zionism and more fanatic and fascistic Zionism. While these types of Zionism had managed to reconcile their differences throughout the past five decades, Israel’s deepening occupation-cum-apartheid system of Jewish supremacy has provided huge momentum to the extreme elements within the Israeli society.
Today, the term "First World countries" is essentially interchangeable with "developed countries", and typically describes countries that are considered to have reached the upper echelon of advancement in several categories. First World countries have a high-functioning democracy with little risk of instability or insurgency. Their economies are stable, innovative, and typically capitalist. First World countries enjoy the most advanced technologies, the highest standards of living, and the greatest degree of political and cultural influence across the globe.

Israel’s Rite Of Passage
Military conscription in Israel refers to the mandatory draft in Israel which applies to Israelis of three ethnicities: Jews (both genders), Druze (male only), and Circassians (male only). Under Israeli law, only men are drafted from the less numerous Druze and Circassians, whereas Jewish women are also required to serve alongside Jewish men. Muslim and Christian Arab citizens of Israel (both genders) may enlist voluntarily, but they have never been conscripted by law. The increasingly numerous ultra-Orthodox Jews are typically exempted from military service under a clause from the Ben-Gurion era known as Torato Umanuto (Torah study is his job), causing increasing friction in Israeli society when it comes to "sharing the burden" of national duty. As of 2022, the minimum required length of military service is two years and eight months (with some roles requiring an additional four months of service) for all conscripted men, and two years (with some roles requiring an additional eight months of service) for conscripted Jewish women. All resident citizens under the age of 40 who have completed their mandatory military service are, unless exempted, eligible to be called up for reserve duty.
The most obvious sign of this declining morale is the growing number of young men and women who are avoiding service (draft dodgers in U.S. parlance) ... The arbitrary or perceived unfairness of many of those exemptions is causing a lot of unrest among Israeli voters and the government has to pay attention to that. The military expects this deferment rate to keep increasing ... The Israeli government has been under a lot of pressure to fix the problem. That has not been easy and success has proved elusive. But this shows how large a problem this has become. One of the most annoying items for most voters was the growing number of religious deferments for ultra-religious Jews.
One element of Israeli society Menuchin and many other Haredim avoid is mandatory military service, a rite of passage in mainstream Israeli society. Most Jewish men and women spend two to three years in the army beginning at the age of 18. Friendships made in the army can also serve as the basis for professional connections after military life. The Israeli Supreme Court has twice struck down legislation aimed at formally exempting Haredim from the draft, most recently in 2017 on the grounds that it created unequal treatment of citizens. The court has permitted temporary exemptions so that the government can find a solution. Those decisions exacerbated friction between religious conservatives and the Supreme Court, which has long served as a strong defender of individual liberties, upholding the rights of Israel’s Arab citizens, women and LGBTQ people.
The study found that the ultra-Orthodox, also known as Haredi, population in Israel numbers around 1.175 million, showing an annual growth rate of 4.2 percent over the past decade, over twice the 1.9% shown by the rest of the Israeli population and over three times that of the rest of the Israeli Jewish population (excluding the Haredi population), 1.2%. At those rates, the community will double in size every 16 years while the rest of the population is expected to double in size every 37 years. The non-Haredi Jewish population is predicted to double every 50 years at current rates.
Through an arrangement established during the founding of the state, Haredi men have enjoyed a de facto exemption from the mandatory IDF or non-military service requirement that legally applies to all Jewish Israeli citizens. Benjamin Netanyahu’s sixth government has taken up the task of establishing a de jure basis for this arrangement, a perennially explosive issue in Israeli politics whose resolution could have decisive implications for the future of Israel’s military, judiciary, and religion-and-state status quo.
The draft deferment has traditionally been extended to yeshiva1 students who pledge that their sole occupation is the study of the Torah. As such, the deferment constitutes an exception to the compulsory military draft that is generally imposed on all Israeli nationals and permanent residents who have not reached military retirement age. The number of eligible deferrals issued under this arrangement has dramatically increased over the years from under 400 a year until 1970, to 800 in 1975, 17,017 in 1987, 26,262 in 1995, 28,772 in 1997, and 61,000 by 2010. The percentage of those enjoying deferments as compared with the total number of persons who were drafted has similarly increased at a steady pace, from 5.4% in 1987 to 6.4% in 1995, 7.4% in 1996, 8% in 1997,10 and 14% in 2007.

Israel’s Constitutional Moment
The Basic Laws were intended to be draft chapters of a future Israeli constitution,[5] which has been postponed since 1950; they act as a de facto constitution until their future incorporation into a formal, unitary, written constitution. Israel is one of six countries (along with Canada, New Zealand, San Marino, Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom) that operate entirely or in part according to an uncodified constitution consisting of both material constitutional law (based upon cases and precedents), common law, and the provisions of these formal statutes.
The Constitution by Broad Consensus Project attempts to address some of the thorniest issues in Israel's social and political life: the dual character of the state as both Jewish and democratic; minority rights; social and economic rights; the basic structure of government; and the desirable division of powers between its branches. There are deep disagreements in Israeli society regarding many of these questions. The constitutional process may not resolve them all. It is important, however, to hold open-minded, purposeful debates about Israel's most critical issues.
Because the Knesset has only one chamber, Israel risks falling into majoritarian rule—a particular threat to secular Jews and minorities, including Israeli Arabs ... Israel’s founders failed to write a constitution because they could not agree on principles such as its relationship with the Palestinians and the role of religion. It has muddled through for 75 years. If the temple is not strengthened, it may start to crumble.