REFERENCES - Chapter 11 - All Together

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Lose Some, Win Some

Israel’s policies regarding the Negev Bedouin at first included regulation and relocation. During the 1950s Israel has re-located two-thirds of the Negev Bedouins into an area that was under a martial law.[citation needed] Bedouin tribes were concentrated in the Siyagh (Arabic for “the permitted area”) triangle of Beer Sheva, Arad and Dimona ... At the same time Bedouin herding was restricted by land expropriation. The Black Goat Law of 1950 curbed grazing, at least officially for the prevention of land erosion, thus prohibiting the grazing of goats outside recognized land holdings. Because few Bedouin territorial claims were recognized, most grazing was rendered illegal. Since both Ottoman and British land registration processes had failed to reach into the Negev region before Israeli rule, and since most Bedouin preferred not to register their lands, few Bedouin possessed any documentation of their land claims. Those whose land claims were recognized found it almost impossible to keep their goats within the periphery of their newly limited range. Into the 1970s and 1980s, only a small portion of the Bedouin were able to continue to graze their goats, and instead of migrating with their goats in search of pasture, most Bedouin migrated in search of work.
The process of integrating the Bedouin into Israeli society takes place on two levels – the formal or by government policy; and the informal, by changing relationships with Israeli society in general and Jewish society in particular. The process, as may be expected, is fraught with “natural” difficulties experienced by this cultural group: the transition from a traditional, conservative society which only two generations ago was nomadic, entails relinquishing values, customs and a traditional economy ... Yet a comparison of the situation of the Bedouin in Israel to that in Arab countries will show that Israeli Bedouin enjoy conditions that their brethren lack, mainly in two areas: welfare and land ownership.
The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is an international membership-based organization established to empower the voices of unrepresented and marginalized peoples worldwide and to protect their fundamental human rights.

Tourism is one of the leading sources of income, crucial to Egypt’s economy. At its peak in 2010, the sector employed about 12% of workforce of Egypt, serving approximately 14.7 million visitors to Egypt, and providing revenues of nearly $12.5 billion as well as contributing more than 11% of GDP and 14.4% of foreign currency revenues.
CAIRO—In a desert plain 40 miles east of central Cairo, a sprawling new capital city is taking shape, with skyscrapers, luxury residences and pedestrian malls representing President Abdel Fattah Al Sisi’s vision of a modern Egypt, fueled by billions of dollars in debt to help see it through. Now comes the hard part: getting people to live and work there.
Last week, the U.S. House of Representatives passed its foreign affairs appropriations bill for Fiscal Year 2021, which includes $1.3 billion in foreign military financing to Egypt, the same level of funding it has received since 1987. Two newly updated POMED fact sheets illustrate the complicated military assistance relationship between the United States and Egypt.
According to Sherifa Zuhur, a professor at the War College, when el-Sisi attended, many American officers expressed doubts that Muslims could be democratic. El-Sisi disputed this opinion; he and others were critical of decisions made in Iraq and Libya. El-Sisi wrote his term paper at the War College on democracy and its applications in the Middle East. In his paper, he argues in favour of democracy based on its past successes. Zuhur also had the impression that el-Sisi supported a gradual move towards pluralism. While at the War College, Sisi sometimes led Friday prayers at the local mosque.
El-Sisi graduated from Egyptian military academy in 1977 and had a master’s degree from the U.S. Army War College in 2006. He was appointed Commander of the Northern Military Region-Alexandria and then Head of Military Intelligence. (AP Photo/Jim Watson, Pool)
By positing a link between the ancient Pharaohs from millennia ago and people living in Egypt today, Sisi’s brand of neo-Pharaonism draws on this legacy of racial nationalism, even while jettisoning some of the pseudoscientific rhetoric that has fallen out of fashion.

The U.S.
Their aim is to pave the way for a million more Jewish settlers and to gradually eliminate any differences between life in the settlements and within Israel’s internationally recognized borders. Their ultimate goal, they say, is to foreclose the possibility of a future Palestinian state. “The difference now is the absolute clarity of this Israeli government’s public policy,” said Husam Zomlot, the Palestinian Authority’s ambassador to the U.K. “This is a stab in the heart of the whole idea of a two-state negotiated solution sponsored by the United States.”
The supporter of the shield is a bald eagle with its wings outstretched (or “displayed,” in heraldic terms). From the eagle’s perspective, it holds a bundle of 13 arrows in its left talon, and an olive branch in its right talon. Although not specified by law, the olive branch is usually depicted with 13 leaves and 13 olives. In its beak, the eagle clutches a scroll with the motto E pluribus unum (“Out of Many, One”). Over its head there appears a “glory” with 13 mullets (stars) on a blue field ... The recurring number 13 refers to the 13 original states. The arrows and olive branch together symbolize that the United States has “a strong desire for peace, but will always be ready for war.”

The U.S. Presidents
From day one of his presidency, Carter showed great interest in the conflict, spending much time and political capital cajoling Egypt’s and Israel’s leaders toward what he believed would be a mutually beneficial deal.
Citing the Camp David Accords as its basis, the Reagan plan called for Arab recognition of Israel and negotiations over control of an undivided Jerusalem. The plan ruled out Israeli sovereignty or permanent control of the West Bank and Gaza, as well as an independent Palestinian state, favoring instead a confederation between Jordan and the West Bank and Gaza. Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin rejected the plan and reiterated Israel's claim to the West Bank; Arab leaders were less categorical but hardly enthusiastic.
Convened in 1991, the three-day Madrid Middle East Peace Conference was a historic breakthrough in Arab–Israeli diplomacy. It became a link between the end of the 1991 Gulf War and the signing of the 1993 Oslo Accord. It broke the taboo against Arab states, Palestinians, and Israelis meeting in public. In the years after the conference, bilateral and multilateral talks ensued, agreements were reached, and countries other than the United States became overtly engaged in managing the conflict.
The bilateral talks between Israel and Jordan, initiated at the Madrid Conference, continued for almost two years in Washington until the signing of the Israeli-Jordanian Common Agenda on September 14, 1993. The Common Agenda constituted the blueprint for the peace treaty, comprising the following components: security, water, refugees and displaced persons, borders and territorial matters. The first public meeting between King Hussein and Prime Minister Rabin took place in Washington, on July 25, 1994. Out of this meeting emerged The Washington Declaration, signed by Prime Minister Rabin and King Hussein, with President Clinton serving as a witness.
Negotiations concerning the agreement, an outgrowth of the Madrid Conference of 1991, were conducted secretly in Oslo, Norway, hosted by the Fafo institute, and completed on 20 August 1993; the Oslo Accords were subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington, D.C., on 13 September 1993, in the presence of PLO chairman Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and U.S. President Bill Clinton.
The 2000 Camp David Summit was a summit meeting at Camp David between United States president Bill Clinton, Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat. The summit took place between 11 and 25 July 2000 and was an effort to end the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The summit ended without an agreement.
Obama's speech called for improved mutual understanding and relations between the Islamic world and the West and said both should do more to confront violent extremism. However, it was Obama's call for peace between Israel and Palestinians that cut the highest profile. Obama reaffirmed America's alliance with Israel, calling their mutual bond "unbreakable", but also described Palestinian statelessness as "intolerable" and recognizing their aspirations for statehood and dignity as legitimate—just as legitimate as Israel's desire for a Jewish homeland.
Direct negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian National Authority took place throughout 2010 as part of the peace process, between United States President Barack Obama, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Mahmoud Abbas. The ultimate aim of the direct negotiations is reaching an official "final status settlement" to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict by implementing a two-state solution, with Israel remaining a Jewish state, and the establishment of a state for the Palestinian people.
The 2013–2014 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks were part of the Israeli–Palestinian peace process. Direct negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians began on 29 July 2013 following an attempt by United States Secretary of State John Kerry to restart the peace process.
The John Kerry Parameters are a declaration of principles that seeks to serve as a framework for a final resolution to the long-standing Israeli–Palestinian conflict. They were proposed by US Secretary of State John Kerry on December 28, 2016, following the UN Security Council's approval of Resolution 2334, in which the United States refrained from using its veto, a rare measure. The plan includes the existence of two Israeli and Palestinian states side by side, with Jerusalem as the capital of both countries, an end to the occupation while fulfilling Israel's security needs, and a viable, demilitarized Palestinian state ... Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu immediately rejected the plan and criticized Kerry for attacking "the only democratic state in the Middle East". Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas expressed his readiness to resume the peace process if Israel stops settlement construction.
The Trump peace plan, officially titled "Peace to Prosperity: A Vision to Improve the Lives of the Palestinian and Israeli People", was a proposal by the Trump administration to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. President Donald Trump formally unveiled the plan in a White House press conference alongside Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on 28 January 2020. The plan had been delayed by two years and previously rejected by the Palestinians, who were not invited to the meeting.
Eery six months for more than two decades, U.S. presidents have had to decide all over again whether to move the U.S. embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Since the Clinton administration, they decided each time to keep the embassy where it is, seeking not to throw a wrench into delicate Middle East peace talks. On Tuesday, however, after signing a waiver putting off the move in June, President Donald Trump informed the Palestinian Authority’s President Mahmoud Abbas that he’s going to recognize the contested holy city as Israel’s capital and begin the process of moving the embassy there.
The Abraham Accords are a series of joint normalization agreements initially between Israel, the United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain, effective since September 15, 2020. Mediated by the United States, the initial announcement of August 13, 2020, concerned only Israel and the United Arab Emirates before the announcement of a follow-up agreement between Israel and Bahrain on September 11, 2020 ... In December 2020, Morocco joined the accords and normalized relations with Israel after the Trump administration recognized Moroccan control over the disputed Western Sahara region. In January 2021, Sudan joined the Abraham Accords and normalized relations with Israel after the Trump administration agreed to remove Sudan from the State Department list of "state sponsors of terrorism" and provide a $1.2 billion loan to help Sudan clear its debts to the World Bank.
The Biden administration on Thursday reopened a direct line of communication to the Palestinian Authority that was severed under former President Donald Trump.
Since the 2003 road map for peace, the current outline for a Palestinian–Israeli peace agreement has been a two-state solution; however, a number of Israeli and US interpretations of this propose a series of non-contiguous Palestinian enclaves.

”Today, all 12 official refugee camps in [Lebanon] suffer from serious problems – no proper infrastructure, overcrowding, poverty and unemployment. [Lebanon] has the highest percentage of Palestine refugees who are living in abject poverty and who are registered with the Agency's ‘special hardship’ programme.”
Drawing on government and military archives, Israeli historians such as Benny Morris have concluded that most Palestinians fled during the fighting, afraid of imagined — or occasionally real — atrocities committed by Jewish soldiers, but that some were victims of an ad hoc Israeli policy of deportation.
The late Ottoman genocides is a historiographical theory which sees the concurrent Armenian, Greek, and Assyrian genocides that occurred during the 1910s–1920s.
The deportation of the Crimean Tatars was the ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide of at least 191,044 Crimean Tatars carried out by the Soviet authorities from 18 to 20 May 1944, which was supervised by Lavrentiy Beria, head of Soviet state security and the secret police, and which was ordered by the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.

Deus Ex Machina Moment
Deus ex machina (plural: dei ex machina; English "god from the machine") is a plot device whereby a seemingly unsolvable problem in a story is suddenly or abruptly resolved by an unexpected and unlikely occurrence. Its function is generally to resolve an otherwise irresolvable plot situation, to surprise the audience, to bring the tale to a happy ending or act as a comedic device.