REFERENCES - Chapter 5 - The Bedouins

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These are the references related to the CHAPTER 5: The Bedouins section in the book.

As Mentioned In The Book

Who Are The Bedouins?
The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic badawī, which means “desert dweller,” and is traditionally contrasted with ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people.
The population of Sinai has largely consisted of desert-dwelling Bedouins with their colourful traditional costumes and significant culture. Large numbers of Egyptians from the Nile Valley and Delta moved to the area to work in tourism, but development adversely affected the native Bedouin population. In order to help alleviate their problems, various NGOs began to operate in the region, including the Makhad Trust, a UK charity that assists the Bedouin in developing a sustainable income while protecting Sinai’s natural environment, heritage and culture.
Sinai’s Bedouins, numbering approximately 400,000, have long criticized the economic depression and political isolation of the peninsula. They were annihilated when it came to tourism and energy development projects during Mubarak’s reign. Investments were concentrated and channeled towards the south including the establishment of a Red Sea Riviera. The government supported labor migration from the Nile Valley to Sinai where workers were given access to land, irrigation, and jobs whereas running water and property registration were services Bedouins were deprived of. Sinai’s Bedouins were not allowed to join the Police, the Army, and the Peninsular Peacekeeping Force the Multinational Force & Observers (MFO), hold important government positions, or form a political party. In addition, staffing in the schools and hospitals of North Sinai is neglected. North Sinai’s Bedouins are also not allowed to work in tourism-related industries or in the services around it.

What Will Be The Bedouin Land Contribution?
They also called for compensating Bedouins who had been detained, achieving genuine reconciliation, and allowing Bedouins land ownership and treating them on equal footing with all Egyptians.
On January 14, 1972, without explicit instructions by the Israeli government, Ariel Sharon ordered the expulsion of the Bedouins of the Rafah Plain, about 18 square miles of land in northeast Sinai, together with the razing of their orchards and the blocking of their water wells. The tribal sheikhs claimed 20,000 people were affected by the expulsion. Israeli army statistics put the number of expelled at 4,950.

What Will Be The Bedouin Military Contribution?
In recent weeks there have been numerous violent incidents between ISIS and Sinai Bedouin. The Bedouin tribes, who refused to cooperate with the Egyptian army against ISIS in northern Sinai over the past three years, have changed their minds since the Bedouins are fed up with the continued clashes with ISIS.
Various articles on the Sinai insurgency.
Since 1948, Bedouins have served in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in large numbers, mostly in scouting or tracking units. A Bedouin scouting unit was established in 1970 in the IDF’s Southern Command, and similar units are now in other regions. In 1986 a desert-scouting unit was formed and has been stationed near the Gaza Strip more recently. There is a monument honoring Bedouin soldiers’ contribution to Israel and its army in the Galilee. In 2003, the IDF formed several specialized “search & rescue” units to serve the residents of the Arab, Bedouin and Druze communities in Israel. Despite their integration into the IDF, Israel’s Bedouin population remains largely unintegrated into the rest of Israeli society, something the Begin Plan aims to change.

What’s In It For The Bedouins?
Palestinian Arabic is a dialect continuum of mutually intelligible varieties of Levantine Arabic spoken by most Palestinians in Palestine, Israel and in the Palestinian diaspora. In two dialect comparison researches, Palestinian Arabic was found to be the closest Arabic dialect to Modern Standard Arabic, mainly the dialect of the people in Gaza Strip... The Bedouins of Southern Levant use two different (‘badawi’) dialects in Galilee and the Negev. The Negev desert Bedouins, who are also present in Palestine and Gaza Strip use a dialect closely related to those spoken in the Hijaz, and in the Sinai.
Umm Yasser, whose name means “mother of Yasser” and per tradition is known by her son’s name, this year became the first woman to sign on as a guide on the Bedouin-led hiking initiative along the Sinai Trail, until recently Egypt’s only long-distance hiking route. It’s run by eight tribes in the region.
The prioritisation of tourism in development in the early years led to nearly over 90 percent of the population in the area living off of tourism money, according to Heba Aziz in ‘Employment in a Bedouin Community: The Case of the Town of Dahab in South Sinai.’

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